1
00:00:01,890 --> 00:00:11,820
Know. Okay.
2
00:00:11,820 --> 00:00:17,910
So on Friday we began looking at operators, the connection between observables and operators.
3
00:00:18,840 --> 00:00:23,580
So the observable is the primitive start is the starting point of our discussion.
4
00:00:24,660 --> 00:00:26,190
And observable has a spectrum.
5
00:00:26,200 --> 00:00:31,500
In other words, there are possible values you can get when you measure this observable to an observable is something you can measure.
6
00:00:31,950 --> 00:00:40,829
So it has possible answers. And to each answer there is at least one state in which you are certain of getting that answer.
7
00:00:40,830 --> 00:00:49,049
So a state where there is no ambiguity, there is no question there's nothing probabilistic about the result of that measurement out of those states.
8
00:00:49,050 --> 00:00:53,370
In those numbers, we construct an operator, this animal here.
9
00:00:54,630 --> 00:01:05,370
And one one good thing about this operator, one useful aspect of it is that if you squeeze it between the between the cat,
10
00:01:05,610 --> 00:01:11,900
the state of your system and the associated bra, you get out the expectation value by.
11
00:01:16,640 --> 00:01:23,510
Of the observable cue when we're in this state. So when there is uncertainty and the result of the measurement is probabilistic,
12
00:01:23,750 --> 00:01:31,010
which normally will be the case for most states will be the case then this simple algebraic formula we showed last time,
13
00:01:31,340 --> 00:01:35,629
I think that's where we finished that. That leads to the expectation value of that measurement.
14
00:01:35,630 --> 00:01:41,690
So that's one way in which this operator Q is useful. You'll find as we go along that there are many other ways in which this operator.
15
00:01:41,690 --> 00:01:47,120
Q which for the moment is going to have a hat to distinguish it from the observable Q which is a physical,
16
00:01:47,120 --> 00:01:52,940
conceptual thing, and the operator, which is just some mathematical fiction which we're going to get used to gradually.
17
00:01:53,240 --> 00:01:58,370
The distinction will blur. But I hope when you need to, you can distinguish between the physical thing.
18
00:01:59,210 --> 00:02:06,140
So energy is the physical thing, and energy comes with an operator, which at the moment would be called hat.
19
00:02:08,450 --> 00:02:10,070
Well, actually we did introduce that.
20
00:02:10,340 --> 00:02:23,090
So the operator E hat is historical reasons called H and of course it is the operator, some over all possible energies of energy.
21
00:02:25,370 --> 00:02:31,309
Energy. So these are the states of well-defined energy and these are the corresponding energies.
22
00:02:31,310 --> 00:02:32,510
And this is the Hamiltonian.
23
00:02:37,970 --> 00:02:46,460
In honour of the Irish mathematician who introduced this into classical physics, I called the corresponding operator into classical physics.
24
00:02:47,590 --> 00:02:56,020
Okay. So any I guess you will have I hope you will recognise from endless lectures that if we have given a basis.
25
00:02:59,200 --> 00:03:03,849
Any old basis, then every operator can be turned into a matrix.
26
00:03:03,850 --> 00:03:14,110
Because given the basis, we can say, given any state find and this will be the sum a I, I can be written as this linear combination of basis vectors.
27
00:03:14,800 --> 00:03:26,860
If we use any operator queue on on up side, we're going to get some other animal fae and we can expand Fae.
28
00:03:26,920 --> 00:03:31,850
We can say that this is equal to the sum of i, i.
29
00:03:32,650 --> 00:03:38,530
And then this becomes. Q operating on the sum of a j.
30
00:03:40,120 --> 00:03:43,780
J. This being some David J. This being some Dave I.
31
00:03:43,950 --> 00:03:47,590
Right. That's just substituting in here.
32
00:03:48,430 --> 00:03:57,459
And then if I want to find out what b I is or actually what is, change this to k to make a slightly cleaner job.
33
00:03:57,460 --> 00:04:00,670
This is just a dummy index. I can call it anything I like. Let's call it k.
34
00:04:01,000 --> 00:04:08,050
If I want to find what b I is, I pick out to pick out of this sum over all the possible all the b case i,
35
00:04:08,530 --> 00:04:12,909
i of course brought through with I so I brought through with I.
36
00:04:12,910 --> 00:04:16,770
And that leads me to the conclusion that b I because this on this summit,
37
00:04:16,780 --> 00:04:21,249
we're going to have an i k here, which is going to be nothing except when k is I.
38
00:04:21,250 --> 00:04:35,559
So I get a b, I is equal to the sum of a j, the sum of I of I operate q j times a j because this is a complex number.
39
00:04:35,560 --> 00:04:45,320
So, so when we break through by I, it doesn't get in the way because I is a linear function on the on the case.
40
00:04:46,960 --> 00:04:52,910
So we can write this as the sum over j and i.
41
00:04:53,030 --> 00:04:57,790
Q i. J a j where q.
42
00:04:57,790 --> 00:05:08,560
I. J is by definition, the complex number that you get in this way by taking the JTH basis vector operating on it with the operator.
43
00:05:08,590 --> 00:05:12,430
Q And then taking the DOT product, as it were, growing through with I.
44
00:05:13,180 --> 00:05:21,490
So every operator can be represented by a matrix of complex numbers.
45
00:05:21,850 --> 00:05:27,010
And of course, any one of these things is called any one of those numbers is called a matrix element.
46
00:05:27,310 --> 00:05:33,220
And a lot of a lot of quantum mechanics, a lot of physics revolves around calculating matrix elements.
47
00:05:34,180 --> 00:05:37,749
So it's a word that's often used. So it's a matrix made up of matrix elements.
48
00:05:37,750 --> 00:05:41,590
These matrix elements are complex numbers. So if.
49
00:05:41,830 --> 00:05:53,620
Now another point to make is if the basis ie is the basis of the eigenvectors of Q.
50
00:05:53,800 --> 00:05:58,810
Now I forgot to last on Friday already. I think we saw I forgot to mention it just now.
51
00:05:58,810 --> 00:06:04,060
I think on Friday we saw that these things well, we defined Q this way.
52
00:06:04,310 --> 00:06:16,960
And with this definition it turned out that. Q I is an icon cat of Q and Q, I is an eigenvalue that was a consequence.
53
00:06:17,680 --> 00:06:22,569
So these physically important states are as a consequence of this definition,
54
00:06:22,570 --> 00:06:27,910
these physically important states become eigen cat's eigenvectors of the operation.
55
00:06:27,940 --> 00:06:32,290
Q And these become the eigenvalues. So now we can say something different.
56
00:06:32,290 --> 00:06:39,579
We can say Q is constructed out of its eigen kits and its eigenvalues in this manner was previously we had a physical statement that the
57
00:06:39,580 --> 00:06:46,300
operator Q was constructed out of the states in which there's no ambiguity as to the measurement and the possible results of the measurement.
58
00:06:47,830 --> 00:06:56,890
So if we use the eigen. Q I as our basis vectors, then this matrix becomes very simple.
59
00:06:57,160 --> 00:07:02,140
Then Q J is going to be, of course, I.
60
00:07:02,950 --> 00:07:08,019
Q Well, I'm going to put this in this. Q I. QJ But.
61
00:07:08,020 --> 00:07:11,760
Q on. Q Jay is necessarily Q Jay Times.
62
00:07:11,770 --> 00:07:14,800
Q Jay, this is so this becomes.
63
00:07:15,850 --> 00:07:20,470
Q Jay Times. Q I times.
64
00:07:20,500 --> 00:07:24,190
Q Jay, but this is Delta, right? Jay So this becomes.
65
00:07:24,220 --> 00:07:30,900
Q Jay Times-delta. Jay So these matrix elements vanish and less Jay is equal to I.
66
00:07:30,910 --> 00:07:35,800
When Jay is equal to I, we get the number. Q Jay, in other words, in this basis.
67
00:07:39,420 --> 00:07:43,620
Q is represented by a diagonal matrix.
68
00:07:50,310 --> 00:07:53,250
In other words, Q is going to look like The Matrix. Q.
69
00:07:53,280 --> 00:08:03,030
Q AJ is going to be Q1, Q2, Q3, all these numbers down the diagonal and nothing everywhere else and so on.
70
00:08:03,030 --> 00:08:09,720
Until we're bought, we'll run out, more to the point, run out of possible states in which Q has a well-defined value.
71
00:08:10,710 --> 00:08:23,370
Okay. As a result of that, if we do this, if we if we take the complex conjugate.
72
00:08:23,820 --> 00:08:33,060
No, no, no, but not do this. Yeah.
73
00:08:33,070 --> 00:08:35,710
All right. Note if so. So the commissioner joined,
74
00:08:35,890 --> 00:08:49,720
I think from I'm going to take it that you remember this from professor but as this lectures have you seen not joint of Q IJA of Q so the Matrix.
75
00:08:49,750 --> 00:08:53,829
Q Now we've got three things now it's a bit confusing, isn't it?
76
00:08:53,830 --> 00:08:56,980
We've got a physical quantity. Q Like the energy.
77
00:08:57,670 --> 00:09:08,380
We've got an operator. Q hat, and we've got a matrix which is in one particular set of basis vectors is representing the operator.
78
00:09:08,890 --> 00:09:15,610
So I'm a little bit short of notations. I've got a Q and a Q hat, but I will say I'm tempted to write to.
79
00:09:15,610 --> 00:09:23,080
Right. Q i. J which sometimes means the particular complex number that you will find in the I throw in the Jth column of the Matrix.
80
00:09:23,110 --> 00:09:30,160
Q But sometimes we use this notation. Q to imply the matrix that represents.
81
00:09:30,190 --> 00:09:41,889
Q Do you see that there's a there's a slight overbooking of notation here, and it's it's it's universal in in in theoretical physics.
82
00:09:41,890 --> 00:09:50,050
You can't well, nobody has a natty way of distinguishing distinguishing between the matrix and the, and the matrix elements.
83
00:09:50,440 --> 00:09:55,690
So let me just write The Matrix. Q So the emission.
84
00:09:55,750 --> 00:10:02,049
I under the Matrix. Q Is is Q Dagger and Q dagger is defined.
85
00:10:02,050 --> 00:10:09,880
So the IGF element of it is equal to is the complex conjugate of the j element of the matrix.
86
00:10:09,910 --> 00:10:11,910
Q Right. This means the complex conjugate.
87
00:10:12,880 --> 00:10:21,070
So so the commission conjugate is you you take, you know, you swap rows and columns and you take the complex conjugate.
88
00:10:21,070 --> 00:10:27,190
That's what happens with the individual elements. So let's see what happens here.
89
00:10:27,550 --> 00:10:34,210
So we we can this property doesn't depend on what basis we look at it in.
90
00:10:34,450 --> 00:10:37,540
So let's have a look at it there. So, so what is this?
91
00:10:38,440 --> 00:10:50,950
Q. J So in the basis in the particular basis of the eigenvectors of.
92
00:10:50,950 --> 00:10:54,639
Q what does this statement become? It becomes that.
93
00:10:54,640 --> 00:11:03,650
Q dagger i j is equal to we figured out what that what q g is q g turned out to be.
94
00:11:03,670 --> 00:11:09,700
Q Up there I Delta.
95
00:11:09,880 --> 00:11:13,390
J or Delta. It doesn't matter. Right?
96
00:11:13,390 --> 00:11:17,000
That's what we found. So that's. Q I.
97
00:11:17,020 --> 00:11:22,180
J in this particular basis, no, i sorry. J I I've swapped I hope I've swapped it over.
98
00:11:22,570 --> 00:11:28,030
And now I take the complex conjugate if.
99
00:11:32,630 --> 00:11:42,170
If Q is real, then this becomes Q II times delta AJ is equal to Q.
100
00:11:42,860 --> 00:11:55,740
AJ. So the permission now joint of Q will be Q itself, if it's possible, if all the elements in its spectrum are real.
101
00:11:57,940 --> 00:12:04,590
And traditionally people have said it's obvious that an observable is a real number.
102
00:12:04,600 --> 00:12:07,720
And I remember it was an undergraduate thinking, hang on a moment, that's ridiculous.
103
00:12:08,050 --> 00:12:11,590
The impedance of a circuit, right, is something that I have to measure.
104
00:12:12,140 --> 00:12:13,480
Yeah. Might be something you're doing.
105
00:12:13,480 --> 00:12:18,040
One of the you might have done last year in some of the electronics practical measure, the importance of this circuit at this frequency.
106
00:12:18,460 --> 00:12:24,130
It's clearly a complex number. So it's nonsense to say that observables have to be real cause they don't have to be real.
107
00:12:24,550 --> 00:12:30,070
But if they are real, then the observable will be represented by an omission matrix.
108
00:12:30,070 --> 00:12:37,850
So. So. If the spectrum. The spectrum is all real.
109
00:12:41,720 --> 00:12:44,930
Then Q Hat is mission.
110
00:12:50,520 --> 00:12:54,450
This is in the great majority of treatments. This is all back to front.
111
00:12:54,480 --> 00:13:01,950
People say it's people say that every observable is going to be represented by or associated with a machine operator.
112
00:13:02,520 --> 00:13:05,220
They then use some well-known theorem, which I'm sure you've met,
113
00:13:05,490 --> 00:13:13,110
which says that every emission operator has real eigenvalues and orthogonal eigen caps.
114
00:13:13,980 --> 00:13:17,730
And then therefore they say the eigen caps of these things are orthogonal.
115
00:13:17,760 --> 00:13:25,440
That's not the way actually the flow of the logic of the the of the flow from the real physical world into the mathematical world works.
116
00:13:25,770 --> 00:13:33,599
It's the other way. It's the real argument is that the eigen states in which the states sorry,
117
00:13:33,600 --> 00:13:38,190
the states in which Q has a well-defined value, have to be mutually orthogonal.
118
00:13:38,200 --> 00:13:41,850
Because why? Because. Q i.
119
00:13:42,560 --> 00:13:50,970
Q j. This complex number is the amplitude to get QJ given.
120
00:13:51,510 --> 00:13:55,330
Q. I. And if you know that the result of the measurement is going to be.
121
00:13:55,350 --> 00:13:59,550
Q Why this this amplitude has to vanish for any QJ not equal to.
122
00:13:59,580 --> 00:14:05,490
Q Why? So this whole functionality comes in is a physical requirement of the way we want to use the theory.
123
00:14:06,690 --> 00:14:11,069
Then if the eigenvalues, if this are all real, it's a spectrum.
124
00:14:11,070 --> 00:14:15,540
The possible results are all real. Then you end up with emission matrices, right?
125
00:14:15,840 --> 00:14:23,990
But there's no need to be working with emission matrices. If if you want to work with the complex impedance as you're observable, that's not required.
126
00:14:24,000 --> 00:14:29,579
But what you do need is this whole functionality result that is that is a consequence
127
00:14:29,580 --> 00:14:34,350
of that's a logical necessity of the way we want to interpret the mathematics.
128
00:14:38,700 --> 00:14:42,400
Okay. Now we can, of course, multiply operations together.
129
00:14:43,590 --> 00:14:50,159
So something else we can do with operators is we've got two operators, O and Q,
130
00:14:50,160 --> 00:14:55,889
we can define this animal by the rule that this multiplied object operating on any
131
00:14:55,890 --> 00:15:01,800
state of SY is simply the result of using the operations in the sequence given.
132
00:15:02,340 --> 00:15:09,900
That is to say, you use you use. Q one up sy first which makes you some cat, which you then use R on, etc.
133
00:15:10,500 --> 00:15:17,430
And when we, if we choose to look at this, if we ask, well, so what is the matrix of our.
134
00:15:17,460 --> 00:15:25,400
Q So what's the matrix of this in sum basis in any basis now it's going to be i.
135
00:15:26,790 --> 00:15:30,690
R What does this mean?
136
00:15:30,700 --> 00:15:46,080
It means our q j and into here we can stick one of our identity operators the sum of M of M.
137
00:15:47,820 --> 00:15:52,950
M. Right. We saw on Friday that this sum is the identity operator.
138
00:15:52,950 --> 00:16:06,030
You can stick an identity operator anywhere into a product. And then this becomes I o hat and m Q Hat.
139
00:16:07,050 --> 00:16:12,380
Oops. J And this now needs a sum of em.
140
00:16:13,310 --> 00:16:21,090
And what is that? This is all I m this is Q MJ So this is just the usual for a matrix product.
141
00:16:21,480 --> 00:16:25,860
So it's ah, I am Q. MJ.
142
00:16:28,650 --> 00:16:36,760
And we will want to know. What the mission adjoint of this thing is.
143
00:16:37,360 --> 00:16:45,130
We want to know what our CU dagger age is.
144
00:16:46,510 --> 00:16:53,110
And so what is that going to be? It's going to be eye our hat.
145
00:16:58,030 --> 00:17:01,269
Do I want to do this? I think I probably don't.
146
00:17:01,270 --> 00:17:06,940
I think probably you've seen this done. I think what I what you've seen is done in the math physics lectures this year.
147
00:17:07,210 --> 00:17:12,910
So I think we can just remind you that this is. Q Hat dagger or hat?
148
00:17:12,910 --> 00:17:18,460
Dagger, right. The when you take the commissioner joint of a product of operators,
149
00:17:18,760 --> 00:17:23,710
you reverse the order of the, of the things in the product and dagger the individual bits.
150
00:17:28,120 --> 00:17:31,390
And I hope you've seen the demonstrate you'll find the demonstration in the book.
151
00:17:31,660 --> 00:17:37,120
If you don't if you haven't seen it, you don't recall the demonstration from Professor Lewis lectures.
152
00:17:38,140 --> 00:17:41,520
And this is all a bit dry and boring, isn't it? Okay.
153
00:17:41,620 --> 00:17:46,120
One thing you may not have seen is functions of operators.
154
00:17:53,030 --> 00:17:57,020
So in particular, for a given example, x,
155
00:17:57,380 --> 00:18:05,510
the position x on the x axis is going to become an operator and we are going to want to evaluate functions
156
00:18:05,510 --> 00:18:13,249
of X like the potential energy at the position x depends upon x and therefore is a function of x.
157
00:18:13,250 --> 00:18:19,910
So in classical physics there is a potential function V of x that tells you the potential energy at the location x.
158
00:18:21,230 --> 00:18:29,360
And since X is going to become an operator, V is going to become an operator, which is obtained by taking a function of an operator.
159
00:18:29,360 --> 00:18:32,480
So we need to know what it means to take a function of an operator.
160
00:18:32,510 --> 00:18:35,780
Another example is this going to be an operator associate with momentum.
161
00:18:36,200 --> 00:18:40,579
The kinetic energy of a particle in classical physics is p squared over two M the momentum
162
00:18:40,580 --> 00:18:44,480
squared of a over twice the mass because that's a half and V squared in classical physics.
163
00:18:45,530 --> 00:18:49,550
So P squared is a function of P very simple one.
164
00:18:49,640 --> 00:18:56,299
It's a function of P. So we need to know what it means to take a function of an operator.
165
00:18:56,300 --> 00:19:03,500
When you do statistical mechanics, you will need to there is there is a there is a quantity, a density operator,
166
00:19:03,980 --> 00:19:10,730
which for which you calculate the entropy of a system which involves a logarithm of of the density.
167
00:19:10,730 --> 00:19:15,530
OPERATOR Right. So you need to take the logarithm of something. So we need to be able to take functions of operators.
168
00:19:15,530 --> 00:19:24,200
So let's, let's decide what this means, right? So what we're going to be done, we're going to imagine we're given F of X, maybe.
169
00:19:25,010 --> 00:19:29,240
So this is just a boring at the moment. This is just a boring number.
170
00:19:30,830 --> 00:19:36,469
Suppose to be given a function. This is a boring number and that's a boring number.
171
00:19:36,470 --> 00:19:43,370
Right? I'm just giving an ordinary function of a complex valued function of a complex valued number.
172
00:19:43,400 --> 00:19:53,299
Say, all right. And let's imagine that we can tailor expand this so we can write this is f nought to value that F takes that nought plus f
173
00:19:53,300 --> 00:20:02,720
one of x the first derivative right plus a half f to x squared over two factorial is the second derivative plus a third.
174
00:20:02,720 --> 00:20:09,410
So write one of three factorial of sixth f3x cubed whoops over three factorial, etc.
175
00:20:09,410 --> 00:20:17,030
Just so we get to imagine that we're going to imagine that our function can be Telesur is expanded in detail.
176
00:20:17,030 --> 00:20:21,950
It might not be possible to expand it around the origin, but then we can expand it around some other place.
177
00:20:22,100 --> 00:20:29,150
In some little neighbourhood, physicists always assume they can expand their functions, and sometimes that leads to major disasters right there.
178
00:20:29,160 --> 00:20:39,530
Important bits of physics which happen only because you can't actually us there series expand everything in life but it's a good starting point.
179
00:20:39,530 --> 00:20:47,419
Okay, so we given this function, now we want to know what F of Q is, right?
180
00:20:47,420 --> 00:20:51,740
What is so what is F of Q?
181
00:20:51,770 --> 00:20:58,030
My the answer to that is this it's the sum of f of q i.
182
00:21:00,160 --> 00:21:03,320
Q i. Q y.
183
00:21:03,800 --> 00:21:10,040
So this is the definition when we say a function of an operator, this is what we mean.
184
00:21:13,260 --> 00:21:21,180
So what is it? This here is an operator which has. So it has the same iGen kits.
185
00:21:25,400 --> 00:21:29,240
As it's argument. All right. So a function takes an argument. The argument is an operator.
186
00:21:29,540 --> 00:21:36,080
This operator has Eigen Katz. So the function of an operator has the same like in cats by construction.
187
00:21:36,770 --> 00:21:45,389
But the eigenvalues. Ah, the given function of the old eigenvalues.
188
00:21:45,390 --> 00:21:48,510
And can you see that this is always, this is guaranteed to work because,
189
00:21:49,050 --> 00:21:59,850
because we started with a function of let's even imagine this is a real valued function of a real value function on the real, on the real variable.
190
00:22:00,180 --> 00:22:03,899
So then this is just going to be some real number for every this will be some real numbers.
191
00:22:03,900 --> 00:22:07,980
So this is a perfectly well-defined thing. But actually it would all work perfectly fine with complex numbers.
192
00:22:08,370 --> 00:22:14,340
Complex valued functions of a complex argument. So this is what we mean by a function of an operator.
193
00:22:19,200 --> 00:22:22,890
I'm going to it's a it's a it's a problem. I mean, I'm leaving it as a problem.
194
00:22:23,640 --> 00:22:34,680
You can now you can now show. So on some problem set, it's a problem to show that this definition is the same as.
195
00:22:39,480 --> 00:22:55,110
F of Q is equal to f nought times the identity plus f one times q plus f two over two Q times q plus.
196
00:22:55,260 --> 00:23:02,729
Right. So if you if you've got the tensor is expansion, then you know what this stuff means, right?
197
00:23:02,730 --> 00:23:07,889
Because we know what it is to multiply an operator on itself. We may not know what it is, take the logarithm of an operator,
198
00:23:07,890 --> 00:23:13,920
but we do know what it is to multiply an operator on itself as many times as it usually will want, because we've defined multiplication of operators.
199
00:23:14,460 --> 00:23:19,260
So this right hand side has a well defined meaning, and you should.
200
00:23:19,680 --> 00:23:24,749
And it's an exercise to prove it's not not desperately difficult to prove that this animal on
201
00:23:24,750 --> 00:23:30,840
the right that we're defining here has as eigenvectors these animals and its eigenvalues,
202
00:23:30,840 --> 00:23:34,290
these animals, and therefore these two definitions coincide.
203
00:23:35,310 --> 00:23:38,730
But this is the more general definition, because this doesn't assume that we can do any.
204
00:23:38,780 --> 00:23:45,689
Taylor is expanding. This does. But when you can do a tiny series expansion or somehow express F in terms of algebra,
205
00:23:45,690 --> 00:23:50,040
which has meaning for operators, which is just to allow which is which is to say only multiplication.
206
00:23:50,040 --> 00:23:56,390
For example, you can't divide one operator by another operator. That doesn't necessarily mean anything, but you can multiply them together.
207
00:23:56,400 --> 00:24:00,570
So when you when this definition works, then this one is the same as this one.
208
00:24:00,570 --> 00:24:04,380
And that's an exercise that I would encourage you to be able to do.
209
00:24:06,400 --> 00:24:08,560
But will not take time to do it now.
210
00:24:12,200 --> 00:24:17,870
Because we're setting up this mathematical apparatus, and I'm sure you're all dying to do a bit of physics, and I am, too.
211
00:24:20,210 --> 00:24:23,420
But we do have to cover a couple of little things here. Comitatus.
212
00:24:25,320 --> 00:24:28,520
Oh, actually, perhaps. Perhaps we should.
213
00:24:28,790 --> 00:24:38,180
We should this time. I moved over here. Okay.
214
00:24:38,290 --> 00:24:46,490
So in some sense, the big news with operators is that a B hat is not necessarily equal to be had a hat.
215
00:24:47,200 --> 00:24:53,380
You know, this already is in as much as, you know, the matrix multiplication doesn't compute generally.
216
00:24:53,980 --> 00:24:58,990
So when you're multiplying matrices together, you don't expect the product this way in the product that way to agree.
217
00:24:58,990 --> 00:25:09,330
And we've agreed that operators once once we take a particular basis, vector system of basis vectors can be represented by matrices.
218
00:25:09,340 --> 00:25:12,580
So it's not surprising that there is this non-core mutability.
219
00:25:12,850 --> 00:25:15,700
And the elementary techs claim this is the key thing about quantum mechanics.
220
00:25:15,700 --> 00:25:18,880
They claim this is not the key thing about quantum mechanics, non commuting.
221
00:25:19,060 --> 00:25:25,270
Things occur also in classical physics. And we'll see we'll we'll see that concretely as we go down the line.
222
00:25:25,780 --> 00:25:37,120
However, it is a fact that these operators do not commute. And we we spend a great deal of time calculating this animal, which is which is AB minus B.
223
00:25:38,770 --> 00:25:43,810
Okay. So the definition of A and B, A comma B in a square bracket is that it means just this.
224
00:25:45,370 --> 00:25:48,819
Now we have some obvious results.
225
00:25:48,820 --> 00:26:01,450
We have that A comma, B plus C, the comitato of A with B and C, the result of adding B to C is clearly the sum from this definition.
226
00:26:01,450 --> 00:26:14,180
It follows that it is just this sum. The little one.
227
00:26:15,770 --> 00:26:23,570
Oh, yeah. We have this obvious result that Abby is able to be a plus, a comma, B,
228
00:26:25,850 --> 00:26:33,799
one of the reasons why we need to know the value as you will see why we need to know the value of a commentator is because we often need to swap.
229
00:26:33,800 --> 00:26:38,750
We need to want to whatever. We often want to swap the order in which operators are around.
230
00:26:39,050 --> 00:26:43,670
And the way to do it is to write that ap b.a plus this comitato, which is obviously true either way.
231
00:26:43,670 --> 00:26:49,070
I think if it is, this adds in the thing that I should have had and takes away the thing that I've put in that I'm not entitled to have.
232
00:26:49,340 --> 00:26:56,660
But it's obvious, right? And now finally, a less obvious result, which is that a B,
233
00:26:57,260 --> 00:27:09,319
the product de B commuted with C is equal to A comma C with B standing by on the outside of the COMITATO plus excuse me,
234
00:27:09,320 --> 00:27:14,960
plus A with C, comma B like this.
235
00:27:17,130 --> 00:27:21,150
It's easy to prove this. I encourage you to prove it. I'm not going to take time to do it.
236
00:27:21,480 --> 00:27:32,010
All you have to do is write down what this is from that definition and then insert two extra terms which cancel each other and you will.
237
00:27:32,010 --> 00:27:37,469
You'll find you can arrange it like this. I would say it should be become a see you.
238
00:27:37,470 --> 00:27:42,870
Absolutely right. Thank you very much for that. The other one I got, right?
239
00:27:42,870 --> 00:27:46,560
Yeah. Okay. So what is this analogous to?
240
00:27:46,770 --> 00:27:50,430
This is analogous to D by D C of a B.
241
00:27:50,910 --> 00:27:58,110
If I have to do a differential of a product with respect to C, then that is equal to the A by de c.
242
00:27:58,650 --> 00:28:01,650
B. Plus a. D.
243
00:28:01,650 --> 00:28:06,180
B. D. C. Right.
244
00:28:06,690 --> 00:28:09,600
This is the rule for differentiating a product. And can you see the mirror there?
245
00:28:09,960 --> 00:28:20,070
The idea is that taking the comitato of something with C is analogous to taking the derivative of something with C and this is no accident.
246
00:28:20,340 --> 00:28:24,270
This, for a mathematician in certain contexts is called a derivative.
247
00:28:27,150 --> 00:28:38,280
And the and the and the rules that we are familiar with here is that you, you, you, first of all, if you have a product,
248
00:28:38,280 --> 00:28:43,890
you can get the result by having this operation happen on the first thing while the second stands idly by.
249
00:28:44,310 --> 00:28:49,950
And then you have two. You let the first one ads stand idly by and then you work on the second one.
250
00:28:49,950 --> 00:28:57,120
So here we have you work on the first one second standing idly by, and then you work on the second one with the first one standing idly by.
251
00:28:57,720 --> 00:29:03,360
The only material difference between these formulae is that this formula is left invariant.
252
00:29:03,360 --> 00:29:08,340
If I move B over here, or if I move over there or whatever, I change the order here.
253
00:29:08,580 --> 00:29:12,420
It won't make any difference because these are ordinary, boring multiplications of complex numbers.
254
00:29:12,780 --> 00:29:17,729
But here it is. It does make a difference like this. A comma C is an operator.
255
00:29:17,730 --> 00:29:21,460
It's the difference of two operators. So it's an operator. And,
256
00:29:21,800 --> 00:29:25,950
and therefore it isn't clear that I can swap the order of this operator in
257
00:29:25,950 --> 00:29:28,650
this operator in the order in which you write these things down is important.
258
00:29:30,460 --> 00:29:36,460
So these these rules should be kind of should be you should make sure you understand where they come from.
259
00:29:36,640 --> 00:29:37,840
You should memorise them.
260
00:29:38,440 --> 00:29:48,910
And broadly speaking, once you once you've got these three rules on board, you never need to look inside a commentator and use this relationship here.
261
00:29:49,180 --> 00:29:55,180
It's bad practice, by and large, when you're doing computations to expand commentators to see what's inside them.
262
00:29:55,450 --> 00:30:05,890
In the same way, I would say as this rule here of course, comes from looking at A, B evaluated at C plus delta C minus A,
263
00:30:05,920 --> 00:30:12,760
B evaluated at C, all over delta C limit, all this stuff, you know, using this stuff, you can prove this.
264
00:30:13,390 --> 00:30:19,390
But we once you've got the rules of calculus, you don't do this expanding stuff anymore.
265
00:30:19,600 --> 00:30:23,230
You just, you know, that's what lies underneath it. That's the justification.
266
00:30:24,190 --> 00:30:31,750
But you don't go back to that every time you have to do a calculation, every time you have to differentiate the x of x cubed,
267
00:30:31,960 --> 00:30:38,980
you do not write that this is x plus delta x cubed minus minus x cubed all over
268
00:30:38,980 --> 00:30:43,300
delta x cubed and come to the conclusion that it's about three x squared to you.
269
00:30:45,160 --> 00:30:52,600
So please don't resist the temptation to to expand out to commentators, write the contents of a commentator out.
270
00:30:53,140 --> 00:31:00,160
There are times when ultimately you have to do that, but most of the time you don't and try and avoid doing it by using these rules here.
271
00:31:01,300 --> 00:31:04,100
Okay. Okay.
272
00:31:04,240 --> 00:31:18,970
I'm going to need one result which combines these statements and those statements we're going to need very shortly to calculate what F, B, comma A is.
273
00:31:19,090 --> 00:31:23,499
So I've got it. So I will want the commentator concretely.
274
00:31:23,500 --> 00:31:29,559
This is going to be V of X and I'm going to want to take the commentator with the momentum operator and these things.
275
00:31:29,560 --> 00:31:34,990
These all need hats, I suppose. Yeah. And those things up there need hats, but you're managing them all.
276
00:31:35,890 --> 00:31:39,040
So this is I'm going to want to, I'm going to want to calculate something like this.
277
00:31:39,040 --> 00:31:42,249
So let's see what this comes to. In order to see what it comes to,
278
00:31:42,250 --> 00:31:50,470
I'm going to imagine that I can expand F in this manner so I can write this as a f nought
279
00:31:52,900 --> 00:32:03,940
times the identity plus f one times B plus f two over two times B squared plus blah blah.
280
00:32:03,970 --> 00:32:13,870
Right. The title sir is expansion of F around the origin commuted with a so now I can use
281
00:32:14,260 --> 00:32:18,820
that second rule there that second rule to do the commentator of this product.
282
00:32:19,180 --> 00:32:24,280
The comment this is a boring number, right? This is a number and this is the identity operator.
283
00:32:24,280 --> 00:32:26,980
So this isn't a number. That's a number, but this is the identity operator.
284
00:32:27,190 --> 00:32:33,429
And the identity operator obviously commutes with everybody because I times a is going to
285
00:32:33,430 --> 00:32:40,209
be this is going to be a same as a times I is going to be a so the commentator so so I
286
00:32:40,210 --> 00:32:44,530
use the second rule to say that the commentator of this sum with a is the sum of the
287
00:32:44,530 --> 00:32:51,940
commentators of this thing with a vanishes and this thing with a so that's going to be F one,
288
00:32:53,560 --> 00:32:58,840
B hat, comma, a hat. This comes outside the comitatus.
289
00:32:58,840 --> 00:33:02,620
Or maybe I should have added that to the rule list there because it's a boring number.
290
00:33:05,950 --> 00:33:18,399
But I think it's it's kind of an obvious principle plus f two over two factorial a B squared comma a plus
291
00:33:18,400 --> 00:33:28,750
F three over three factorial B cubed comma a plus plus plus plus plus plus plus right until your board.
292
00:33:31,360 --> 00:33:38,340
So that's that's the middle rule used. Now we use the last rule to say that this is f one.
293
00:33:38,350 --> 00:33:58,030
Well this is, this is just to repeat, but this B squared is B times B so I can expand this into F two it into B hat, comma, a hat, b hat plus.
294
00:33:58,630 --> 00:34:06,280
Right? So it was b b commuting with a so I worked on the first B while the second B stood idly by and now
295
00:34:06,280 --> 00:34:15,099
I have to put down the first B standing idly by and have the second B worked on by a plus dot,
296
00:34:15,100 --> 00:34:18,090
dot, dot, plus F three, etc. Right.
297
00:34:18,100 --> 00:34:24,160
Which is going to involve three terms because it'll be b b b committee with a, so it'll be three things to consider.
298
00:34:27,680 --> 00:34:42,770
And this is as far as I can go in general. But in an important case, if the hat A hat commutes with B.
299
00:34:44,150 --> 00:34:53,300
So if this. Commentator So be hat a hat commentator is an operator.
300
00:34:54,170 --> 00:34:55,640
This is the difference in two operators.
301
00:34:56,390 --> 00:35:07,220
So if this operator commutes with B hat, then this B camera and this B camera and this one could all be taken outside.
302
00:35:07,640 --> 00:35:32,900
And I have that. So under this condition, that F of B hat commuting with a hat is equal to B hat, comma, a hat times F one plus, f two plus.
303
00:35:33,050 --> 00:35:40,460
And you can, you see it will be F three over two because the f three would have been over three factorial, but we would have had three terms.
304
00:35:40,940 --> 00:35:45,830
Oh, sorry. This is going to be times B this silly me, this is going to be times b hat.
305
00:35:46,640 --> 00:36:03,700
This is going to be times B squared plus. So this is what this will all reduce to, which can be more conveniently written as as d f by DP.
306
00:36:09,910 --> 00:36:14,440
So this is an operator. Oops. Sorry. Yeah.
307
00:36:14,460 --> 00:36:22,720
It doesn't matter which order I put it in. This is an operator. And that Taylor series is the Taylor series for Def by the x.
308
00:36:23,920 --> 00:36:29,740
So I can write this stuff. Here is the F by D, B, and then here is my B camera.
309
00:36:29,980 --> 00:36:34,450
And I was momentarily panicked about having written this in front of this.
310
00:36:34,690 --> 00:36:41,170
But we've agreed that this operator computes with B, that was the condition under which we were making this further development.
311
00:36:42,070 --> 00:36:47,709
And if this thing commutes with B, it commutes with every function of B in particular,
312
00:36:47,710 --> 00:36:52,970
it commutes with the F IDB, which is a function of B, so it doesn't matter which order I put this in.
313
00:36:52,990 --> 00:37:01,660
So this is a function. Which means it has the same I can cats.
314
00:37:07,930 --> 00:37:13,390
So that's a result we're going to want. And there's one other thing that now needs to be discussed.
315
00:37:16,720 --> 00:37:24,910
Which is the physical implications of a commuting would be so if they had a B hat.
316
00:37:27,440 --> 00:37:32,300
Equals nought. We say commuting observables.
317
00:37:41,270 --> 00:37:44,299
Then the mathematicians assure us we have a theorem.
318
00:37:44,300 --> 00:37:48,320
And the theorem is that in this case.
319
00:37:51,530 --> 00:37:54,620
There is a complete set.
320
00:37:59,280 --> 00:38:11,690
Of mutual aid cats. We'll call these mutual Asian cats.
321
00:38:11,720 --> 00:38:15,770
Just I. That is to say, for each and every one of these,
322
00:38:15,770 --> 00:38:33,320
it is true that a hat on I is equal to a i i and simultaneously be hat on I is equal to some number by when I when to operate is commute.
323
00:38:33,410 --> 00:38:37,130
There's a theorem that states this. What does that mean for the real physical world?
324
00:38:37,820 --> 00:38:42,830
What that says in the real for the real physical world is there is a complete set of states,
325
00:38:44,090 --> 00:38:50,749
these states in which the result of making a measurement of a is definitely known
326
00:38:50,750 --> 00:38:55,700
and simultaneously the result of making it a measurement of B is certainly known.
327
00:38:55,700 --> 00:39:00,260
So there is a complete set of states in which there is no ambiguity.
328
00:39:00,290 --> 00:39:04,070
There is nothing probabilistic about the result of measuring either of these quantities.
329
00:39:05,810 --> 00:39:14,720
It's very important to bear in mind that in complete, we're not merely saying that there is a state or ten states with this property.
330
00:39:15,050 --> 00:39:22,430
There are enough states with this property that any state can be written as a linear combination.
331
00:39:23,660 --> 00:39:27,260
Whatever GI of these objects right there complete.
332
00:39:27,980 --> 00:39:42,230
That's what completeness means that any state. So there is a complete set of states in which there's absolute certainty.
333
00:39:42,440 --> 00:39:44,750
It does not mean that.
334
00:39:47,950 --> 00:39:58,220
The fact that I definitely there's no uncertainty in the value that B takes implies that there's no uncertainty in the value that takes.
335
00:39:58,460 --> 00:40:03,560
That is not that does not follow from the commuting of A and B as we will see it.
336
00:40:04,790 --> 00:40:13,250
It may well be the case is that there are estates in which B definitely has a value, for which A, the outcome of measurement of A is uncertain.
337
00:40:17,400 --> 00:40:26,740
So it's so the the result of two observables commuting their operators commuting is slightly technical because it involves this complete statement.
338
00:40:26,760 --> 00:40:34,140
It is that there is a complete set of states in which the outcomes of the measurements of both observables are certain.
339
00:40:35,310 --> 00:40:45,690
Okay. Now if a comma be not equal to zero, what does this mean?
340
00:40:45,750 --> 00:40:53,940
All it means is that there is at least one cat.
341
00:40:56,400 --> 00:41:00,810
Such that a comma be.
342
00:41:05,440 --> 00:41:11,350
There may be an infinite number of cats such that a bee operates on them and produces nothing.
343
00:41:12,160 --> 00:41:16,000
But there is one. There is at least one. If you say that these operators don't compute,
344
00:41:16,000 --> 00:41:23,440
you're saying or asserting that there is at least one cat where the commentator operating on it doesn't produce nothing.
345
00:41:26,150 --> 00:41:30,470
So it. If so, what does this imply?
346
00:41:30,500 --> 00:41:35,630
It implies that there is no complete.
347
00:42:04,210 --> 00:42:13,570
So it's a very weak and not emotionally striking result that there just isn't a complete set of states in which they're both.
348
00:42:14,380 --> 00:42:20,490
They both have definite values. There may be a very large number of states in which they do have definite values simultaneously.
349
00:42:20,500 --> 00:42:24,280
So it is not a statement that you can't know the value of this simultaneously.
350
00:42:24,280 --> 00:42:30,640
With the value of that, we'll come across a counterexample next term, I guess a very important counterexample.
351
00:42:31,450 --> 00:42:38,349
So don't run away. It's a very it's a very, very widely held misconception that if two operators don't commute,
352
00:42:38,350 --> 00:42:41,370
you can't know the value of the one and the value of the other.
353
00:42:41,380 --> 00:42:46,870
That's just not true. The statement is that there isn't a complete set of states with that nice property.
354
00:42:55,390 --> 00:43:04,900
Okay. We've just got time to start on the next really important section, which is about time evolution.
355
00:43:05,350 --> 00:43:14,630
Maybe. Maybe it's time to move over here. Okay.
356
00:43:14,690 --> 00:43:18,620
So physics is about prophecy. It's prophecy that works. It's about predicting the future.
357
00:43:18,620 --> 00:43:26,689
That's what it's about. And therefore the core of it is equations of motion, Newtonian mechanics.
358
00:43:26,690 --> 00:43:29,960
We think of usually as to do with F equals Emma.
359
00:43:30,230 --> 00:43:34,490
It's, it's making it seem to what the acceleration is when you can calculate the acceleration and you know the,
360
00:43:34,940 --> 00:43:36,769
and you know the initial position and velocity,
361
00:43:36,770 --> 00:43:42,020
you can predict where your by your missile is going to be at some future time or your planet is going to be at some future time and so on.
362
00:43:42,020 --> 00:43:47,960
Right? That's what it's all about. So at the core of quantum mechanics sits its time evolution equation.
363
00:43:48,290 --> 00:43:53,180
And I'm not going to immediately justify this, I'm just going to write it down.
364
00:43:53,540 --> 00:43:56,570
It's the time. What's the time?
365
00:43:58,370 --> 00:44:03,180
Dependent. Shredding a.
366
00:44:09,690 --> 00:44:21,540
This is the core of the subject. This is where the physics sits and it's high bar what I call the sci fi d t is equal to h upside.
367
00:44:22,680 --> 00:44:28,410
This is why it's because it appears in this central, crucial, vital equation.
368
00:44:29,010 --> 00:44:32,400
The Hamiltonian sits here. That's why the Hamiltonian matters.
369
00:44:32,790 --> 00:44:39,570
Right? Its status in life is unique because it uniquely tells you about the future.
370
00:44:39,720 --> 00:44:43,830
And that's what physics is about. Okay.
371
00:44:44,280 --> 00:44:50,500
And this is the state. Any system.
372
00:44:54,760 --> 00:45:02,650
So it's completely non-negotiable for a state which purports to describe a real physical object.
373
00:45:04,410 --> 00:45:09,570
It has to satisfy this equation. It tells you how the state evolves in time.
374
00:45:09,600 --> 00:45:13,590
It's, of course, a very abstract object at the moment. It won't be telling you much.
375
00:45:14,000 --> 00:45:18,360
And at the moment, I can't connect it.
376
00:45:18,510 --> 00:45:24,620
We will be connecting it very shortly. But just at the moment, I can't connect this for most of you to classical mechanics.
377
00:45:24,630 --> 00:45:34,860
Those of you who've done did the seven short option will recognise this perhaps just a little bit as having something to do with Hamilton's equations.
378
00:45:36,600 --> 00:45:41,459
But we will. So the justification, the physical justification is that this is the dominant equation.
379
00:45:41,460 --> 00:45:47,280
Will, will, will come by and by. But ultimately, there's no way this can be derived from anything you already know.
380
00:45:47,280 --> 00:45:49,470
This cannot be derived out of classical physics.
381
00:45:49,770 --> 00:45:55,770
Classical physics can be derived out of this because classical physics provides an approximation to this.
382
00:45:56,370 --> 00:46:02,579
Right. And the assertion is that nature evolves things according to this equation.
383
00:46:02,580 --> 00:46:08,180
And whether that's true or not can only be determined by experiment. It's got nothing to do with mathematics, and it's got nothing.
384
00:46:08,190 --> 00:46:11,310
And it cannot be justified on the basis of classical physics, ultimately.
385
00:46:11,580 --> 00:46:17,879
But if this is a valid statement, it should it should produce the right Newtonian equations of motion.
386
00:46:17,880 --> 00:46:23,760
I will show you that it does produce the right Newtonian equations of motion, because Newtonian mechanics is an approximation to quantum mechanics.
387
00:46:23,880 --> 00:46:29,170
Right. Okay.
388
00:46:29,330 --> 00:46:32,500
Now, suppose let's. This is.
389
00:46:32,710 --> 00:46:36,610
This is kind of a scary equation, right? So let's.
390
00:46:36,940 --> 00:46:39,960
Let's try and find some circumstance in which we can solve this.
391
00:46:39,970 --> 00:46:44,950
Right. So suppose our system has well-defined energy.
392
00:46:54,120 --> 00:46:59,730
In other words, the state of sci at time t.
393
00:47:00,360 --> 00:47:10,340
Well, the state of upside is equal to d where h e is equal e.
394
00:47:11,700 --> 00:47:16,679
Write a state of well-defined energy has to be an eigen function of the energy operator.
395
00:47:16,680 --> 00:47:22,020
H with eigenvalue e. That's that's what it is.
396
00:47:23,010 --> 00:47:28,110
So let's suppose that we in our system happens to have well-defined energy.
397
00:47:29,580 --> 00:47:43,440
Then it will then it will have to solve this equation and we'll have each by the e by d t is equal to g h e is equal to e e.
398
00:47:44,910 --> 00:47:51,480
So the rate of change of e is simply proportional to E, and we know how to solve that equation.
399
00:47:52,530 --> 00:47:55,560
We spot it just from ordinary, old fashioned calculus.
400
00:47:55,800 --> 00:48:07,770
We spot that this implies that e at time t is equal to e to the minus i e t over bar e of zero.
401
00:48:12,130 --> 00:48:18,010
So I feel I feel entitled to write this down on the basis of just boring classical classical mathematics,
402
00:48:18,010 --> 00:48:24,410
which says that, that if we know that the X by d t, no, I shouldn't do it there.
403
00:48:24,460 --> 00:48:37,750
If I know that the x by d t where x is some variable is equal to x, that implies that x of t is equal to x of nought e to the.
404
00:48:38,310 --> 00:48:46,870
Right. So this result for many a result inspires me to write down that I can now trivially check
405
00:48:46,870 --> 00:48:51,310
by differentiating this right hand side that it satisfies this differential equation.
406
00:48:51,340 --> 00:48:56,649
Right. Because when I because when I differentiate this right hand side, this thing is not a function of time.
407
00:48:56,650 --> 00:49:00,580
It's the it's the value that the state of well-defined energy takes a time t equals nought.
408
00:49:00,580 --> 00:49:08,350
So it has no time derivative. So the time derivative comes merely from this, which is a totally boring exponential of a bunch of real numbers.
409
00:49:08,390 --> 00:49:12,400
Well, with part from the AI. All right, so we know how to differentiate this.
410
00:49:12,700 --> 00:49:16,959
So it's easy to evaluate the time derivative of this, and it's trivial to check that.
411
00:49:16,960 --> 00:49:20,980
Then it's that. Then e satisfies this equation. So what does this tell us?
412
00:49:23,230 --> 00:49:31,570
This is a very important result. It tells us that the time evolution of states of well-defined energy is really dead trivial.
413
00:49:32,530 --> 00:49:34,209
They basically don't change.
414
00:49:34,210 --> 00:49:41,950
All that happens is the phase goes around in increments at a constant rate, each over each bar with a frequency of reach bar,
415
00:49:41,950 --> 00:49:49,120
which is, of course, incredibly for typical systems like this is incredibly large because bar is so small, it's on the bottom there.
416
00:49:49,120 --> 00:49:51,550
So this frequency is stupendous for an object like that.
417
00:49:52,120 --> 00:49:57,400
So this thing has some energy and its wave function is zooming around at some hysterical rate.
418
00:49:58,330 --> 00:49:59,140
That's all that's happening.
419
00:50:02,720 --> 00:50:13,110
The beautiful thing is that this enables us to solve the general problem, because if I have if I have a CI, I want to solve this.
420
00:50:13,110 --> 00:50:18,950
So I've got now some system that's not in a state of well-defined energy. And we'll see that real systems never are in states of well-defined energy.
421
00:50:19,280 --> 00:50:27,860
But then I can surely write this as a linear combination with coefficients that depend on time of states of well-defined energy.
422
00:50:29,420 --> 00:50:34,370
Right? These are a complete set of states because they're. Yeah, we've been through this.
423
00:50:34,370 --> 00:50:35,360
This is just boring, right?
424
00:50:36,020 --> 00:50:46,280
So I can put I simply put this and that's this expression, this expansion into both sites of my time dependent Schrodinger equation.
425
00:50:46,520 --> 00:50:55,879
And we discover that, that we discover that h bar the up side by d t is equal to h bar brackets.
426
00:50:55,880 --> 00:51:10,130
We have to differentiate this stuff so it's a and dot e and t plus a and times the time derivative of
427
00:51:10,130 --> 00:51:28,130
this times key and by d t was that equal to that's equal to on this side h enter the sum and e n.
428
00:51:32,360 --> 00:51:35,750
I've missed some of her. And indeed I have. I missed out a son over. Thank you.
429
00:51:36,110 --> 00:51:40,580
Just about here. I'm kind of conscious of that horrible clock.
430
00:51:45,590 --> 00:51:52,270
And. But, uh. Well, okay, why don't we just write this?
431
00:51:52,280 --> 00:52:00,110
Why don't we just write carry this on and write this as a sum over n of a and h e n.
432
00:52:02,460 --> 00:52:06,150
But. This term.
433
00:52:06,150 --> 00:52:22,740
This term here cancels this term here i hpr and so far d n by d t is h e n so these terms all cancel those terms leading to the conclusion.
434
00:52:27,040 --> 00:52:31,030
So when I when I look at this stuff is equal to this stuff.
435
00:52:31,660 --> 00:52:37,330
I've cancelled this to the right side now. So there's nothing. And the left side has this stuff has a dot.
436
00:52:37,690 --> 00:52:52,630
So I've got the conclusion that the sum of N of a and dot e and of t equals nought bra through with an e i of t.
437
00:52:52,840 --> 00:52:56,950
And that leads to the conclusion that I. Dot equals nought.
438
00:53:00,210 --> 00:53:03,210
So the AI's. The AI a constant.
439
00:53:04,050 --> 00:53:07,110
So we have a solution. This enables us to.
440
00:53:07,440 --> 00:53:09,990
To write down the solution to the general problem.
441
00:53:10,230 --> 00:53:22,090
We have that upside of t is equal to the sum of some constants and which you can determine from the initial conditions times e.
442
00:53:22,110 --> 00:53:28,020
N of t. But I can explicitly write that out because I know how this thing evolves in time.
443
00:53:28,320 --> 00:53:34,860
This is the sum and of nought e to the minus i e and of t e n.
444
00:53:34,860 --> 00:53:38,910
T of ball times. N of nought.
445
00:53:40,170 --> 00:53:44,310
So once. So this is the really, really this is a fabulously important equation.
446
00:53:44,700 --> 00:53:48,930
So this part of it is needs to be purchased the back of the retina.
447
00:53:49,440 --> 00:53:54,450
And it it's the key to everything because it tell and what it tells us is once we know what these states,
448
00:53:54,450 --> 00:54:03,500
the well-defined energy are and the approved energies, we can trivially evolve in time the dynamical state of our system and predict the future.
449
00:54:03,510 --> 00:54:12,690
We have everything. That's it. So a large part, a huge part of this subject revolves around finding what these states of well-defined energy are,
450
00:54:12,870 --> 00:54:16,020
because they have this enormous predictive power.
451
00:54:16,030 --> 00:54:20,219
They are the miracle. They are sort of one to drug.
452
00:54:20,220 --> 00:54:25,140
They solve the problem, they do it. So we'll talk some more about them tomorrow.